Proposed State Legislation Would Repeal Local Funding Rule
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Memphis, TN, 2/20/2015 – Tennessee lawmakers have introduced legislation that would repeal T.C.A. 16-2-518, the so-called “75% Rule” for local public defender funding. The rule was established in 1992 and requires that local government provide funding to the public defender at 75% of any funding increase to the district attorney general.
The Shelby County Public Defender’s Office opposes passage of House Bill 241 and Senate Bill 1324, which would dismantle fiscally sound legislation that has served our community and state well for more than 20 years.
The 75% Rule helps ensure fairness in a necessarily adversarial system. Repeal of this longstanding and sensible check on spending would alter the balance that must exist when life and liberty are at stake, as they are daily in the criminal justice system.
Local government helps fund public defense in Tennessee’s urban centers, while the State is the primary funding source for public defenders elsewhere. The 75% Rule has worked for more than two decades to keep costs down for both State and local government. Repeal of this rule is a solution looking for a problem. It is unclear how this community and the State of Tennessee would benefit from the removal of this smart and fiscally responsible mandate.
What is clear is that removing this mandated balancing mechanism has the potential to drive up costs for the State, destabilize the funding structure of our local criminal justice system and trigger a dangerous imbalance in our courtrooms. A weakened public defender system exposes the community to more wrongful convictions, unfair sentences and, ultimately, a more expensive County Jail.
The 75% Rule is the kind of policy that Tennesseans should be proud of. It should not be repealed. We urge our state lawmakers to uphold this commitment to fairness, justice and good stewardship by voting against HB 241 and SB 1324.
Media Contact: Josh Spickler at 901.216.2024 or firstname.lastname@example.org
Anyone facing criminal charges that could result in imprisonment has the right to an attorney — if he cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed and paid for by the government. That right was established in 1963 by the landmark Supreme Court case Gideon v. Wainwright.
But a study just released by the Tennessee Bar Association (TBA) reveals that fewer private attorneys say they are willing to accept this work, because the pay is too low and paperwork too burdensome.
That’s bad news for communities across Tennessee, because it results in fewer private attorneys willing to accept appointed cases. In turn, those attorneys still willing to accept cases may have even less time to spend on appointed cases as a result of the burden of additional clients. In addition, some appointed attorneys may be unwilling to spend adequate time on a case for which there will be inadequate compensation. Of course, the person facing criminal charges bears most of the burden in a system like this as poor advocacy results in more time spent awaiting disposition, longer sentences and more wrongful convictions.
In Shelby County, appointed counsel are more often than not, public defenders. In fact, the Shelby County Public Defender’s Office handles more than 35,000 cases each year. But in cases of conflict (for example, when two defendants are jointly charged with a crime or the victim in the case was a former client of the public defender) a judge may appoint a private attorney to defend an indigent client.
Private attorneys in the Memphis area are also appointed in the majority of the cases involving children, as the Shelby County Public Defender’s new, specially-trained Juvenile Defender Unit only has the capacity to handle a portion of the approximately 4,000 children facing delinquency charges in Juvenile Court each year. In a poor, urban community like Shelby County, a healthy appointed counsel system is a critical part of the criminal justice system.
The TBA report reveals an appointed counsel system in Tennessee that is far from healthy. The TBA is currently working to raise the compensation rate from the current $40 per out-of-court hour for non-capital cases, $75 per hour for out-of-court on non-capital cases. The rate has not changed since 1994 and according to the TBA, this makes Tennessee court-appointed attorneys among the lowest paid in the country.
A national study of compensation for appointed counsel shows that Tennessee is among the states paying at the bottom end of the fee scale.
“The average rate of compensation for felony cases in the 30 states that have established a statewide compensation rate is less than $65 an hour with some states paying as little as $40 an hour” — from the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers (NACDL) study Rationing Justice: The Underfunding of Assigned Counsel Systems
Not only are Tennessee appointed counsel paid at an unusually low rate — lawyers in the survey also cited state-mandated limits on the total fee that are too low to provide adequate counsel. The Tennessee Supreme Court’s Rule 13, which contains the rules for appointed counsel, caps maximum compensation on most non-capital cases at $500-$1,500, depending on the type of offense. Nearly 60% of the survey respondents reported that they “frequently” or “always” reached the compensation cap.
In addition to limited compensation for their legal work, respondents to the TBA survey reported spending an unreasonable amount of time preparing and submitting their fee claims to the state — some as much as 5 hours on compensation paperwork and submission. In fact, more than 75% of the attorneys admitted that they had not even bothered submitting claims for payment, because it took too much time to file.
Given the low fee and administrative burden, it’s not surprising that one-third of the survey respondents said they have stopped taking appointed cases. A vast majority of that group said it was directly related to low compensation.
The TBA will be using the results of this study to continue to push for changes to Rule 13, and how private, appointed counsel is compensated.
Alumni magazines are often just that – magazines only alumni would read. The University of Memphis Cecil C. Humphrey’s School of Law set out to do something more.
This week, the school launched its new publication, Memphis Law (ML). Dean Peter Letsou says the goal of the school’s new publication is to communicate with alumni, students, lawyers and other supporters. But Letsou and his staff had one more mission — to produce stories about the law that appeal to readers beyond the legal community.
The Shelby County Public Defender’s Office is proud to have produced the cover story for the launch of ML.
That’s the story of Abe Fortas, the native Memphian who argued the landmark Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), which established the right to counsel for all people facing incarceration, regardless of ability to pay, and spawned public defense systems across the country. Later, as a Supreme Court Justice, Fortas wrote the majority opinions in Kent v. United States (1966), which extended due process rights to children and In re Gault (1967), which provided children similar constitutional protections as adults.
Despite these and a remarkable list of other accomplishments, Fortas is but a footnote in Memphis history. You can read about his astounding rise to power and stunning fall from grace and find out why some believe it’s time to revisit Fortas’ place in Memphis history.
We also contributed an article about what the right to counsel looks like in Memphis, 50 years after the Gideon v. Wainwright decision. While that 1963 decision sparked a flurry of change in the criminal justice system, the resources to defend against three decades of tough-on-crime justice policies have not kept up. There is, however, a glimmer of hope that our country and community are rounding a corner in criminal justice reform.